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M-fiorO»^. UT^^ft frnd FisL. Con 

This Booklet 


—Peter S. Twitty, Commissioner 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 


A feller isn't thinkin' mean — out fishin'; 

His thoughts are mostly good and clean — out fishin' 

He doesn't knock his fellow man 

Or harbor any grudges then; 

A feller's at his finest, when — out fishin'. 

The rich are comrades to the poor — out fishin'; 
All brothers of a common lure — out fishin'; 
The urchin with the pin and string 
Can chum with millionaire and king; 
Vain pride is a forgotten thing — out fishin'. 

A feller gets a chance to dream — out fishin'; 

He learns the beauties of a stream — out fishin'; 

An' he can wash his soul in air 

That ain't foul with selfish care 

An' relish plain and simple fare — out fishin'. 

A feller has no time for hate — out fishin'; 
He ain't eager to be great — out fishin'; 
He ain't thinkin' thoughts of pelf, 
Or goods stacked high upon a shelf, 
But he's always just himself — out fishin'. 

A fellow's glad to be a friend— out fishin'; 

A helpin' hand he'll always lend — out fishin'; 

The brotherhood of rod and line 

An' sky an' line is always fine; 

Men come real close to God's design — out fishin'. 

A feller isn't plottin' schemes — out fishin'; 

He's only busy with his dreams — out fishin'; 

His livery is a coat of tan, 

His creed? To do the best he can. 

A feller's always mostly man — out fishin'. 

AS A FOREWORD: No real sportsman will 
catch more fish in a day than he, his party, or 
his family can comfortably and pleasantly con- 
sume. He will, too, put undersized fish back in- 
to the water, that they may mature and furnish 
an equal bit of sport for those who are to come 
after him. 


THE feel of a game fish tugging and pulling on the 
other end of your line. When he tries to outwit you 
and you try to outwit him. It's the greatest game 
of all sports. None of the others bring to you the per- 
sonal and individual thrill of satisfaction when you win. 
You've landed your fish . 

The click of the golf ball; the impact of the gun when 
you fire or the smell of the burned powder — there is a 
thrill in both of them; in either of them. But it isn't the 
same thing as landing your fish. That's when your 
mind has left the drain of business thoughts and cares; 
when your troubles and worries have dropped into com- 
plete forgetfulness. Your physical fatigue falls off you 
and is as though it never had been, and your minor ail- 
ments are being given a. tonic which the nature of human 
enthusiasms alone can compound. You're just "out 
fishin' ", and that's all there is to it. Rather, it's all 
there is to anything at the time. Just "fishin' ". 

In the midst of the ever-day efforts to expand business, 
to overcome competition, to grow commercially, our 
busy people, as a people, find little inclination to pause 
and take stock of some of Nature's great blessings to 
Georgians in the form of a Wise Alchemists' most wonder- 
ful compound for the bigness and betterment of human 
progress and prosperity— human happiness. The ma- 
jority of us do not realize the broad scope of our own 
wonderful out-doors where the Great Exterior Decorator 
has so lavishly demonstrated a completely unexcelled Art 
in our woods and hills and streams; and too little <!<> we 
familiarize ourselves with the enticements to happiness 
and health He has stored these beauty-spots of a wonder- 
ful Handiwork with, to give to them a full appreciation of 
their proper part in our lives. It is not an exagger- 
ation to say no spot on this continent is better blessed 

Scene on Tallulab River. 

with a greater variety of these gifts of nature than is the 
State of Georgia. That nowhere in America is there af- 
forded better opportunities for all the varied happiness 
and satisfactions to be found "When a feller goes a 
fishin' " than in Georgia. 

There is no State in the Union that offers to the angler 
a greater variety of sport fishing than can be found in 
Georgia. Literally thousands of miles of splashing, 
swift, clear water rivers and creeks, wind their course 
around the picturesque mountain sides of North Georgia, 
and furnish an abundance of rainbow and brook trout ; the 
larger streams and their tributaries of Middle and South 
Georgia, which find their way to the Gulf of Mexico or the 
Atlantic, are teeming with bass, bream, perch and other 
species; and along Georgia's marvelous coast, where the 
rare climate the year round is unexcelled, there is a great 
diversity of thrilling salt water fishing for such species as 
Channel Bass or Red Fish, School Pass, Winter and Sum- 

mer Trout, Drum, Sheepshead, Mackerel, Croakers, 
Whiting, etc. 

Our commonwealth imposes on the fisherman in this 
state fewer restrictions than in most states, far more 
moderate regulations than in many states; and less of 
legal requirements than in probably any state in the 
Union. It bids to its citizens, and to his friend from 
elsewhere, a cordial "welcome" and asks of him little else 
than that he be "a true sportsman", have a mind for the 
happiness also of his fellowman, and to remember that a 
sportsmanlike conservation makes for the continuity of 
that happiness in the future years. 


One of the first thoughts of a good citizen, when he is 
thinking of a fishing trip, is "What is required of me". 

Georgia's fishing laws are extremely liberal; none of 
them are oppressive. Fewer restraints are imposed upon 
the fisherman in Georgia than in any other state. Many 
of the restrictions found by fishermen elsewhere, are 
left in this state to the sense of propriety and sportsman- 
ship of the individual. To illustrate, other states limit 
the number of fish of each species that may legally be 
caught in a day; and most of them prescribe a size limit 
by prohibiting the taking or possession of fish under 
certain length in inches specified by law. In many other 
states the sale of fresh -water fish is prohibited by law. 
None of these restrictive prohibitions are imposed upon 
the fisherman in Georgia. If he fishes with a hook and 
line, he may take as many fish as he pleases, regardless 
of their size, so far as the written law is concerned. Nor 
is there any prohibition in law to prevent him selling his 
fish if he desires. In these things he is restrained only by 
the conscience of the good sportsman who must realize 
that the destruction of undersized fish is a waste, and that 
a catch in excess of what can reasonably be consumed is 
not conservation for his own and his fellow-sportsman's 
good . 


Most of the states have enacted statutes requiring a 
license to fish. That tax must he paid and the license 
procured before the fisherman can legally enjoy one of 
the greatest of all out -door sports. It isn't so here. No 
fishing license or fee is required to fish in Georgia, in fresh 
waters, except when one catches shad fish for sale; in 
other words when the taking of shad fish is not a sport, 
but is commercialized. (A special shad fish law has been 
enacted in this state, and will be furnished to anyone on 
application to the Tidewater Commissioner, Brunswick, 


In other states many thousands of dollars in revenue 
are raised annually from the sale of fishing licenses, as a 

Beautiful "Twin Lakes" Near Valdosta. 

part of the revenue for the support of their departments 
of Game and Fish; in Georgia the fisherman is not called 
upon to contribute one penny to the support and main- 
tenance of the Department of Game and Fish. The only 
revenue received by this department, in Georgia, is from 
the sale of hunting licenses. And yet, most of the money 
received by the department is actually expended in ad- 
ministration of the fishing regulations, in propagation of 
fish with which the streams of the state are restocked, in 
salvaging marooned fish during periods of "freshets" when 
they would be lost, and in similar work having to do ex- 
clusively with this branch of its conservation work. 


It has always been the policy of the present administra- 
tion of Georgia's Department of Game and Fish to dis- 
courage radical restrictions by statutory enactments. 
Instead there has all the while obtained the idea and belief 
that a greater individual and collective co-operation is to 
be found in leaving much of what other states have writ- 
ten into laws to the sportsmanship and conscience of the 
fisherman, and that a general observance of reasonable 
restrictions will flow to a greater degree from that spirit 
of co-operation and accord. That, naturally, makes for 
a more uniform administration than mandatory enforce- 
ment of rigid requirements. 

There are, however, certain fundamental requirements 
or provisions in Georgia's fishing laws, which prescribe 
penalties for violations which have to be classified as 
important. The department makes earnest and con- 
tinuous efforts to uniformly enforce, as it is expected 
to do. 


To take fish by means of baskets, traps or similar de- 

Banks' Lake, a Fish Haven in Lanier County. 

To cause to be placed in any of the waters of this State 
any trap, basket or similar device for the purpose of tak- 
ing fish. 

To seine or net for fish, except as specially permitted. 
To dynamite fish. 

To place in the waters in this State any poisonous sub- 
stance, such as walnut hulls, lime or any other substance 
likely to destroy the fish. 

To poison fish in any manner. 

To shoot fish. 

To muddy a stream or any other body of water in 
order to take fish therefrom by means of hand-grabbling 
or otherwise. 

All of these fundamental regulations, it will be immedi- 
ately observed, are conservation measures designed to pre- 


vent wanton waste and in no wise affect the pleasures of 


Permission of the land-owner is required, by law, to 
fish in waters on or adjacent to his land. Verbal consent 
only is necessary. 


There are certain exemptions from nearly all of the 
comparatively few regulations in Georgia's laws. This 
touches the matter of private ponds. 

The owner of a private pond, his family, or his tenants 
with the consent of the owner, are permitted to fish with- 
in the bounds of such ponds at any time and in any man- 
ner they desire, except that none of them, or anyone else, 
may dynamite fish, shoot fish or poison fish. It is im- 
portant, though, that this special exception accorded in 
the matter of private ponds includes only the owner of 
the pond, members of his family, or his tenants when 
given permission. 

AYhile statistics have not been compiled showing the 
economic value of private ponds to land-owners and their 
families, experience has been sufficiently broad to justify 
the department in efforts to encourage and aid in the con- 
struction of private ponds, both from the point of home 
pleasures and in increasing the variety of food for the 
family. Private ponds in addition to furnishing food for 
home use, often prove a convenient source of revenue 
through the sale of surplus fish. 

In furtherance of the desire to aid in increasing I lie 
number of private ponds, the Department of Game and 
Fish will gladly co-operate with country land-owners and 
country home-owners by furnishing advice and informa- 
tion on the subject, obtaining for them plans for con- 


structing such ponds, and will be glad to supply an in- 
teresting booklet of 35 pages, illustrated, entitled "Fish 
Ponds on Farms", which gives not only clear directions 
for the making of ponds, but describes suitable fish for 
pond culture, their foods, habits, etc. Where any es- 
pecial problem confronts the land-owner in his prepara- 
tion for such a pond, the Department of Game and Fish 
especially invites correspondence and tenders him its aid 
in endeavoring to meet and overcome his problems. 


The law prohibits seining for fish, except when special 
permit is obtained from the Department. That is in 
order to save every fish possible, and to encourage the 
propagation of more fish in the streams in the State. 
The Department will, however, grant a special permit to 
seine for fish for transplanting under the following con- 


Famous Okefenokee Swamp, a "Prairie" Scene. 

Where fish have been marooned in eddy- 
places, or in any still water where they are lia- 
ble to perish from drouth, a permit will be is- 
sued upon the recommendation of the County 
Game Warden. Such fish must be caught and 
transplanted under the personal supervision of 
the County Game Warden or his assistant. 

This provision is entirely one of conservation. Persons 
knowing of conditions existing where fish are likely to 
perish, or otherwise be destroyed, are especially requested 
to notify the Commissioner of Game and Fish, State 
Capitol, Atlanta, Ga., in order that prompt steps may be 
taken to save them. 

A great deal of this work has been done by the De- 
partment in past years, frequently with the liberal co- 
operation of local citizens. That was particularly true 
during the spring and summer of 1929. Over a million 
adult fish were saved, by being rescued by game wardens 
and deputies after floods and freshets, from spots in 
which they had been marooned when the water was high 
and left when the waters receded with no outlet to running 
streams. An idea of the importance of this kind of con- 
servation work may be had by thinking of the many 
thousands of fish one pair of adults will produce in a 


Penalties are necessary in the enforcement of all regu- 
latory enactments. Without a penalty they would not 
be valid. An Act of the General Assembly of Georgia of 
L925 fixes a penalty for violation of the state fish laws 
(except dynamiting) as follows: a fine of not less than 
$25, nor more than $200, and all costs of court; or, not 
less than 30 days nor more than 90 days on the chain 
gang; or, not less than 30 days nor more than 90 days in 
jail, either or all of said penalty to be applied in the dis- 
cretion of the court in which the trial is had. 


"A Day's Catch" from a North Georgia Lake. 


There is a heavier penalty for dynamiting fish, indicat- 
ing of course that this unsportsmanlike method of de- 
struction is deprecated by the state's lawmakers as well 
as its Department charged with the duty of carrying out 
conservation measures. The penalty prescribed by law 
for dynamiting fish is a fine of not less than $100 and 
not more than $1,000 together with all costs of court; or, 
not less than three months nor more than twelve months 
on the chain gang; or, not less than three months nor 
more than twelve months in jail; either or all of the penal- 
ties to be applied within the discretion of the court where 
the case is tried. 

It is obvious that this provision of law is not excessive, 
but at the same time that it is intended to prevent wanton 


destruction. Among fishermen there is no spirit of 
sportsmanship or honor on the part of an individual who 
uselessly destroys in large numbers, cither by the use of 
dynamite or poison, thai which nature intended to be of 
benefit to the human family, and which his state is seek- 
ing to properly conserve in such a way as to bring the 
greatest benefits to the greatest number of people. 


The law prohibits the ordinary or general use of gill- 
nets. By a special order of the Board of Game and Fish 
there is one limited exception. 

There are in some waters predatory fish, as there are 
predatory prowlers among the animals on land. They are 
a menace to the supply of game fish, destroying either 
young fish or spawn. 

Under authority given it by law, the State Board of 
Game and Fish, under date of January .SO, 1930, pro- 
mulgated "Official Order No. 117", which permits the 
use of gill-nets only during the months of January, Febru- 
ary and March, and limits the authorization exclusively 
to the taking of gar, carp and sucker fish under definite 
restrictions as to the size of the mesh to be used even for 
this purpose. The mesh of such nets must be not less 
than two and a quarter (2)4) inches square, or not less 
than four and one-half (4^>) inches long when stretched. 
The order provides that, when any other fish than carp, 
gar or suckers are caught with gill-nets, such other fish 
must be returned to the waters immediately. Any per- 
son having in possession or retaining any other fish so 
taken, may be prosecuted for a misdemeanor. It also is 
prescribed that any net of a smaller mesh than provided 
in the special order shall be confiscated by the game 
wardens. It is especially to be remembered, however, 
that the use of gill-nets in salt water rivers, .-•recks and 
estuaries is prohibited at all times. 

There was, of course, a reason for promulgation of this 
special order; that reason being a desire to exterminate, 


as far as possible, carp, gar and sucker fish, which arc rc- 
cognized as predatory or destructive fish, from the streams 
where they have done great damage. The carp in par- 
ticular is a menance to all species of sport fish. A twenty 
pound carp will produce upward of two million eggs. 
None of our nest-building fish, such as bass, bream, etc., 
commonly produce in excess of 20,000 eggs. The average 
production of black bass is 15,000 eggs, and that of the 
bream is considerably less. The carp, where unchecked, 
can, by mere weight of numbers, destroy practically all 
the spawning beds of nest-building fish, and the special 
order of the State Board referred to is in furtherance of 
the Department's policy of conservation. 


No sportsman cares to or wants to ''corner" or hem up 
the supply of any of his fellowman's out-door sport. 
There is a legal provision in Georgia, therefore, covered 

Jurf Fishing at Sea Island Beach 

in section 603 of lite penal rode, which carries this re- 

If any person shall place in the waters of any 
river or creek, or any fresh water drain or dam, 
any traps, nets, seines or other devices for catch- 
ing fish, unless the main channel of such stream 
is left open for a space of ten feet for rivers and 
one-third of the channel of creeks, at low mark', 
unobstructed for the free passage of fish, up or 
down stream, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 



While the poisoning of fish in any waters in Georgia is, 
as it ought to be, prohibited by law and carries a very 
heavy penalty, there has not been necessity heretofore to 
make similarly severe statutory enactment touching the 
pollution of streams through various agencies. Yet the 
Department realizes that there is a constantly increasing 
menace in the state from this source of danger. Various 
forms of pollution have not reached anything like the 
danger point in Georgia already reached in many of the 
other states, but it has in recent years been gradually 
becoming more and more a problem with us, and it is 
only a question of a few more years until it will be really 
alarming. There are several reasons. Rapid increase in 
population in the larger centers is one of them, since that 
means greater pollution of streams in their neighborhood 
through municipal sewerage. In the long run that is 
not only a menace to public health in the vicinity of the 
affected streams, but is destructive to fish life. The 
most serious menace comes from the refuse from manu- 
facturing enterprises; cotton mills, dye plants, pulp mills, 
refining plants, fertilizer factories, bleacheries, rayon mills 
and other industrial plants. These enterprises are, in 
keeping with the state's progress, multiplying rapidly 
each year, and as the march of commercial and industrial 
progress goes on the incident menacing condition relative- 
ly increases. The Department of Game and Fish has 


A Fisherman's Paradise in Georgia. 

absolutely no authority in matters of this kind, unfortu- 
nately, and the authority of the State Board of Health is 
too limited. 


In its reports, through the press, in special literature, 
this department has repeatedly called attention to this 
condition, and has sounded the warning as best it can 
under the circumstances. The matter, however, is one 
which properly addresses itself to the attention of the 
Legislature, and the Department feels it but a duty to 
draw public attention to the increasing danger from such 
stream pollution, in order that the people themselves may 
discuss it with their representatives in the General As- 
sembly and impress upon the representatives the neces- 


sity for such remedial legislation as will forestall grnve 
results which are bound to come to the fish supply, unless 
the Legislature provides a remedy. There is, of course, 
complete realization of the fact that proper measure of 
respect must be paid to the matter of industrial, manu- 
facturing and textile growth and development with its 
vast benefits to the state, and that ill advised measures 
would, with that in view, not be in keeping with a general- 
ly progressive state. 

In order to meet the condition in the best possible man- 
ner under existing circumstances, the Department of 
Game and Fish has, during the past two years, had one 
of its best qualified men engaged exclusively in this line 
of work, and has been making a study and survey of pollu- 
tion of streams in the state, and applying remedial efforts 
by inspiring voluntary co-operation. In many instances 
correction of bad conditions has been brought about in 
this way, despite the fact that this Department has no 
plenary power whatever in the premises. More success- 
ful advancement in this branch of the work can come only 
through Legislative aid; that is by the provision of au- 
thority under which to operate. 


Dealing with the subject matter of conservation could 
not be complete, even in major part, without reference 
to an unconscious and unthoughtful form of destruction. 
To the casual observer any connection between forest 
fires and depletion of the fish supply undoubtedly will 
seem so remote as to appear fantastic. It isn't. The 
connection is a direct one, and has an even more rapid 
effect of deterioration in the supply of economic wild life 
than upon the fish supply. At the same time the unin- 
formed layman is aware of the fact that muddy waters 
drive away the best species of game fish, and these are 
the more desirable for food purposes. The object lesson 
is in the fact that the best fishing is in the clear-water 
streams, while the muddy waters are infested with the 


predatory enemy of what are commonly classed a* \hc 
game fish. The carp for instance, is recognized as a 
menace, and "suckers" are in the "mud fish" classifica- 

Scientific study has brought to light the fact that the 
most serious of soil erosions is traced directly to burning off 
woodlands and forests. This has been found particu- 
larly true in the Piedmont region, where the practice 
causes the water to flow off more rapidly into the streams 
carrying with it heavy erosion. It is this which takes 
into the streams a great amount of silt, dirt and refuse in 
the upper watershed, where the rushing waters accumulate 
all of it on their way to the ocean. When, after a period 
of heavy rainfall, one's attention is drawn to the markedly 
muddy condition of a river in the middle or lower portion 
of the state, thought probably does not turn to the ques- 
tion where the "mud" comes from or, if it does, the idea 
passes off with the conclusion that it came from around 

Twilight on Famous Lake Burton. 

the bend. It doesn't. That muddy condition started 
its formation well up to the headwater of the river, where 
denuded lands were washed into the creeks, then poured 
into the river, and so on it accumulated as the increased 
volume of water made its way to the natural outlet. 

Proper drainage of farm lands; leaving natural growth 
in places where best suited to arrest or check erosion; 
intelligent clearing of land in geographical locations which 
form a water-shed, cessation of the practice of burning 
lands along the water-shed clear of all ground-growth will 
materially contribute toward a correction of what is ac- 
tually a scientific evil. Though it will be ages before 
such a thing could be, a continuation of the unscientific 
practices of the present day which are producing an ever 
increasing erosion will eventually bring about such a 
leveling of the hills toward the streams that eventually 
the hills will have disappeared. 

The subject matter is one which applies generally in a 
study of the broad scope of the practice of conservation, 
and in the proper study of which there is no better avenue 
to future results than in the class rooms of our schools. 


There is no general law in Georgia fixing a closed season 
against fishing. There is, though, a special statute 
which authorizes any county in the state, by action of 
its grand jury, to fix what has been commonly termed a 
"closed fishing season". Where the county grand jury, 
acting in conformity with the special law, defines a given 
period of time, in which fishing in the waters and streams 
in that county shall be prohibited, it then becomes the 
duty of the State Department of Game and Fish to en- 
force that law. The purpose of the law must make itself 
clear to anyone who will call to mind the fact that at a 
certain period of the year nature provides for the re- 
stocking of the streams and waters through natural 
propagation. It is the spawning season. During the 
period in which the fish are on the bed, and when, if left 


On the Alapaha River, South Georgia. 

alone, the countless thousands are hatched to make the 
future supply, taking the adult fish from the bed means 
the loss of untold future supply both from the viewpoint 
of sportsmanship and of food economics. To illustrate 
the point the following is quoted from a letter received 
from one of the experts of the Federal Bureau of Fisheries : 

"I could be quoted, if desired, as stating that 
no bass or bream is to be found on the nest unless 
he has eggs or a new hatch under him; that if the 
parent fish is removed the eggs or new hatch will 
be a total loss, and that this amounts, for bass, 
to an average of about 5,000 and for bream per- 
haps 1,000 potential fish; that these fish mature 
in two or three years and become parents; so 
that, whereas under the present system (when 
there was no protection during the spawning 
period) there is a possibility of a day or two of 


goodfishingbyrobbingthe bed of the guardian fish, 
though under a system that provides immunity 
during the eight or ten weeks of the breeding- 
season would result in a very few years in such an 
increase that good fishing could reasonably be ex- 
pected throughout the balance of the year, wher- 
ever weather conditions were favorable for bit- 

The logic and common-sense of it has been very general- 
ly accepted by many Georgia counties in availing them- 
selves of the authority to set up local option laws, and 
nearly 100 counties have, through action of their grand 
juries, fixed a period in which fish may not be taken, 
during the spawning period in the respective communi- 
ties. The present method, however, has been the cause 
of some confusion in the state, because of the absence of 
uniformity in the application of the local-option, thus 
making enforcement similarly somewhat confusing. For 
that reason some thought has been given to the problem 
whether or not the end desired is to be better accomplish- 
ed by setting up one uniform, general state-wide "closed 
season" law. A measure to that end was introduced in 
the State Senate in 1929, and passed that branch of the 
Assembly unanimously, but was not reached for passage 
in the House before adjournment; the result being that 
the state is still working at this time under the local- 
option law. 


Some time ago the Department of Game and Fish 
reached the definite conclusion that it was advisable l<> 
augment nature's propagation for re-supplying the 
streams, in order that certain species might be more 
abundantly brought forward, as well as •<> build up more 
impoverished or entirely depleted localities with those 
species which might be artifically propagated. Hence, 
the Fish Hatchery. 

Georgia's Fish Hatchery was established about Janu 
ary 1, 1929. It is located in a picturesque valley about 


five miles west of Summerville ; about thirty miles north 
of Rome. In the short period of its operation it has been 
an exceptionally gratifying success, and has won for it- 
self the highest kind of commendation from unexpectedly 
large numbers of Georgians and visitors from other 

The land for the Hatchery was donated by one of the 
public-spirited citizens of Chattooga County. The en- 
tire plant, including the hatchery buildings, the resi- 
dence of the superintendent, the lakes and all other 
equipment, has been bought, paid for and developed 
Avithout one cent of appropriation from the General As- 
sembly of the State. The hatchery was built and is 
maintained by funds left over each year, after all operat- 
ing expenses of the Department of Game and Fish are 
paid — and the Department is operated and maintained 
entirely on the proceeds of hunting licenses, not a dollar 
being appropriated for it out of the funds of the state. 

State Fish Hatchery at Summerville. 

The Fish Hatchery already is recognized and ac- 
credited one of the most complete and up-to-date of the 
smaller hatcheries of the United States. A representa- 
tive of the federal Bureau of Fisheries, after visiting 
Georgia's first hatchery, had this to say of it: 

"In my thirty years in fish culture I have been 
connected with or familiar with many trout 
hatcheries, both of State and Federal owner- 
ship. I do not know of, and I do not believe 
there is one anywhere that has so much results 
to show for so little in cost; nor that permits of 
expansion at as low an additional outlay." 

It is the purpose of the Department that the plant 
and equipment at the Hatchery shall be extended from 
time to time in order that the annual production of fish 
for planting in the streams of the state may be propor- 
tionately increased. Up to this time only rainbow 
and brook trout are being propagated in large quantities. 
These cold-water species are being raised for restocking 
the colder mountain streams of North Georgia. Bass 
and bream will be raised during this year, but these 
warm-water species will not be distributed in large quan- 
tities until 1931. 

The superintendent of the Hatchery contemplates 
producing more than a half a million rainbow trout for 
distribution during 1930. As additions and expansions 
can be made the production will, of course, be propor- 
tionately larger. Persons desiring these fish should write 
to the Commissioner of Game and Fish, State Capitol, 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Anyone desiring bass, bream, or other warm-water 
species of pond fish this year should make application 
direct to his Congressman, who will be glad to have 
such fish supplied from one of the several Federal Fish 



The Department of Game ami Fish of Georgia is not 
working haphazard. In addition to its routine and regu- 


Fly Casting in a North Georgia Stream. 

latory work there are certain definite objectives toward 
which the Department is striving, and to accomplish 
which it needs and solicits the co-operation of every fisher- 
man in the State. Among these the objectives which 
are felt to be most practical and most essential for the 
proper conservation of our State's fish life are: 

(1) A uniform state-wide closed fishing season in lieu 
of the present local-option law. This should be designed 
to cover the spawning season of fish in this state, and 
should be based on accurate, scientific knowledge compre- 
hending the spawning season of the leading species of 
game fish, and giving proper consideration to the climatic 
differences in North and South Georgia. 

(2) A law prohibiting the sale of fresh water game 
(ish during the period of such closed fishing season as 
may be prescribed by a state-wide law. 


(3) A law providing for a moderate fishing license fee 
for persons fishing in the fresh waters of the state, the 
proceeds to be used for the establishment and mainte- 
nance of fish hatcheries in the state where sufficient fish 
may be propagated to restock the streams and waters 
where the supply is being diminished or practically de- 
pleted. Under the present laws the entire expense of 
administering the fishing laws and providing maintenance 
of the state's first Fish Hatchery comes from funds de- 
rived from the sale of hunting licenses. The result is 
that propagation and re-stocking in that branch of the 
Department's work is not as broad as it otherwise could 

(4) Adequate laws to insure the protection of our 
streams and other fishing waters against pollution by in- 
dustrial waste and other causes. 


The Department has found from experience there is 
often a degree of unthoughtfulness among fishing and 
hunting parties. These suggestions are made, therefore, 
as reminders or hints for recollection: 

Don't overlook the fact that there would really be little 
opportunity for any of us to enjoy the pleasant privilege 
of fishing but for the courtesy of the man who owns the 
land from which we fish. Show your appreciation of the 
courtesy extended by the land-owner by respecting his 
property rights. 

Be careful with fire! A lighted match or cigarette 
carelessly tossed aside in dry brush or undergrowth, may 
cost your generous host the loss of many thousand dollars 
through a destructive fire. Don't build a campfire where 
there will be danger of the blaze spreading, and be sure 1 
to see that all the fire is out before leaving the camp. 
Smoldering embers are extremely dangerous. 

Leave a clean camp. Burn all the waste paper and 
garbage, so the visitor who comes after you may be re- 


minded that a good sportsman preceded him, and that 
the man who let you enjoy your pleasure on his property 
may have no cause to regret it. 

Don't cut down or otherwise abuse or destroy growing 
trees. There is always dead wood enough available for 
camp-fire purposes. 

Put back in the water all undersized fish, and remember 
no true sportsman will catch more fish in a day than he 
and his party or family can reasonably use. 

Beware of poisonous snakes, and be careful with all 
fire arms. 


Every fisherman, while in the woods and swamps, is 
constantly exposing himself to attack by poisonous 
snakes, and his tackle box should be equipped with one 

^^m 1 

Way Down Upon the Suwaaee Iliver." 

of the anti-venom outfits, which can be procured from 
almost any drug" store. For the benefit of those who do 
not have such first aid equipment on hand, the following- 
treatment for snake bite is printed, with permission from 
the proper authorities, from the Manual of the Boy Scouts: 

Snake Bite: 

The bite of a non-poisonous snake leaves a U-shaped 
row of tooth prints, or several long scratches, if the bite 
has been glancing. A poisonous snake "strikes" straight, 
and leaves two punctures made by the fangs. Rattle- 
snakes have rattles, of course. Unless you are sure that 
a snake is not poisonous, better treat its bite as below. 

First Aid Treatment: 

Snake poison is a chemical substance which spreads 
rapidly in the circulation. Unless positive that the snake 
is harmless, do this instantly: 

(1) Quickly apply tourniquet (shoe-lace, necktie, bit 
of cloth, belt, neckerchief, rope, etc.), an inch and a half 
from the wound and between it and the heart. To avoid 
gangrene, loosen tourniquet for an instant every twenty 

(2) Quickly make the wounds bleed, lay open each 
fang bole with an X -shape cut made by a sharp knife; 
squeeze gently and rub toward wound to encourage bleed- 
ing; suck wound (if there are no sores in your mouth) 
and spit out the poisoned blood. Warm water may be 
poured on the wound by some other helper, thus en- 
couraging bleeding. 

(3) Quickly cauterize with Potassium Permanganate, 
force a crystal or two of potassium permanganate deep 
into each fang-hole; Iln^ chemical has the power of chang- 
ing snake venom into a harmless substance, bui it must 
be used quickly and thoroughly. Ordinary antiseptics 
do not counteract snake poison. 


(4) keejMjuiel; keep the part bitten as still as possible, 
for muscle movement favors circulation and the spread of 
the poison. 

(5) Quickly get a doctor's aid as a heart stimulant 
may be needed. 

(6) Wet dressings tend to keep the wound draining. 

(7) In addition, let someone in the party kill the 
snake if he can, in order that the doctor may identify the 
species and know which powerful serum to use. 


For the information of fishermen, the following list of 
Georgia's best fishing streams is compiled and published. 
For further convenience there is included the name and 
address of the game warden or other representative of 
the Department of Game and Fish, who will promptly 
answer any inquiry concerning fishing waters in his re- 
spective section and will be glad to co-operate with those 
interested in arranging fishing trips. 


of North Georgia. 

County Stream Write To 

Fannin Noontootla Creek and W. A. Wilson, 

Toccoa River. Blue Ridge, Ga. 

Floyd Etowah and Oostananla C. W. PropltHI, 

also Coosa Rivers. Rome, Ga. 

Gilmer Coosawattee, Cartecay C. C. Cox, 

and Ellijay Rivers. Ellijay, Ga. 

Gordon Dew's Pond C. W. Barrett, 

Calhoun, Ga. 
Habersham Soquee River, Panther A. L. Ramsey, 

creek and Tugalo Lake. Clarkesville, Ga. 

Lumpkin Chestatee River, High- W. F. Shelton, 

tower and Yahoola Rivers. Dahlonega, Ga. 
Murray Jack River and Conasauga W. A. Jackson, 

River. Eton, Ga. 

Rabun Wild Cat and Dicks Creek, John LaPrade, 

Burton, Lakemont, Seed Clarkesville, Ga., 

Lake, and Tallulah Falls R. F. D. and Chas. 

Lake, Tugalo River. E. Rogers, Clay- 

ton, Ga. 
Towns Hiawassee River, Corbin, E. E. Sellers, 

Town and Hightower Hiawassee, Ga. 

LTnion Cooper Creek, Nottely and Homer Jarrard, 

Brasstown Rivers. Natal, Ga. 

White Dukes Creek and Chatta- M. D. Matheson, 

hoochee River. Helen, Ga. 


soi iiu: vst Georgia 

(Streams running to Allan tic Ocean.) 

Stream Write To 

Briar Creek Carl Fleming, Sparta, Ga. 

Ogeechee Lee C. Brinson, Millen, Ga. 

J. C. Tootle, Glennville, Ga. 

T. L. Beasley, Claxton, Ga. 

Ohoopee ...J. H. Moore, Stillmore, Ga. 

St. Marys River Chas. S. Arnow, Kingsland, Ga. 

A. F. Phillips, Folkston, Ga. 
Satilla River. E. R. Aycock, Waycross, Ga. 

R. J. Wainwright, Nahunta, Ga. 

(Streams running to Gulf of Mexico.) 

Streams Write To 

Kinehafoonee River D. E. Graham, Leesburg, Ga. 

Muckalee Creek D. E. Graham, Leesburg, Ga. 

Notchaway and 

Chichasawhaehee Creeks C. M. Clark, Albany, Ga. 

Ochlockonee River Claude Rountree, Thomasville, Ga. 

Pataula Creek.... ...J. B. Williford, Cuthbert, Ga. 

Spring Creek .W. L. Olivent, Bainbridge, Ga. 


In every section of Georgia there are privately owned 
ponds and lakes in which the public is permitted to fish 
under reasonable restrictions. Most of these ponds are 
well stocked with bass, bream and other game fish. The 
following is a list of the larger lakes and more important 
ponds together with the name and address of the owner 
or person controlling same or the local game warden: 


County Pond or Lake Write To 

Baker Power Company Lake Baker County Power 

Butts Jackson Dam Pond L. J. McM,ichael, 

(Game Warden), 

Clayton Munday's Pond J. H. Munday, 

Decatur Spring Creek Pond Ga.-Ala. Power Co., 


DeKalb Watson Pond Mr. Bob Watson, 

Emanuel Coleman's Lake I. L. Price, Swains- 

McKinneys Mill Pond W. M. McMillan, 

Fayette ...Lee's Lake J. M. Lee, Fayette- 

Bennett's Lake Mrs. I. P. Lee, 

Fulton Black Rock Pond Geo. Thomas, Hape- 


Houston Houston Factory Lake J. H. Davis, Perry. 

Lanier... Bank's Lake (11,000 acres) __E. D. Rivers, Lake- 
Long... Middleton Lake Harry Parker, Ludo- 

wici Game Warden 

Lowndes Ocean Pond Paul Lily, Valdosta. 

Twin Lakes ...Paul Lily, Valdosta. 

Rabun .. Lake Burton Chas. E. Rogers, 


Talbot Juniper Lake Dozier Bros., Juniper 

Ware & Okefenokee Lakes J. M. Hopkins, 

Charlton Folkston. 

Washington. ...Cilmore Pond (Hamburg) ....Gilmore Bros., 




The Department of Game and Fish is fortunate in 
having the co-operation of Dr. John H. Powell, a fisher- 
man who has fished in Georgia waters for more than 
thirty years, has an intimate knowledge of the respective 
fishing advantages of the ■ different fresh waters of Geor- 
gia, and who is a recognized authority on all sport fishing. 
Dr. Powell contributes fishing stories regularly to one of 
the leading daily newspapers of Georgia, which also 
carries a "Question and Answer" column conducted by 
him, in which he answers the many questions that are 
constantly asked him by the anglers of the State. Through 
the courtesy of Dr. Powell, we are reproducing for the 
interest and benefit of Georgia fishermen some of the 
answers to the questions most commonly asked him. In 
order to conserve space, the questions are omitted and 
only the answers printed herewith. 


"I would not advise fishing when the moon is full and 
the sky cloudy, for fish are afraid of shadows playing on 
the water. They are easily frightened or disturbed." 


"Thirty years of fishing has taught me to watch the 
signs of the Zodiac. I pick my fishing days when the 
signs are not in the heart or stomach, for when the signs 
are thus your live bait will be apt to bleed to death quick- 
ly, as also will any little fish you catch and may want to 
throw back." 


"My advice is to watch the winds. Avoid East winds 
on the coast or inland. From my experience, South and 
Southwest winds are the luckiest, and you will usually 
find these winds on the first and last quarter of the moon." 



"Fish arc apparently hungriest in the early Spring, 
and this seems to he the best time to hag them, with other 
conditions all right." 


"Answering your query as to what is the best time 
to fish for Bass and Trout, I will say on clear days from 
daylight to about nine o'clock in the morning. That is 
when they are feeding. At this time use light-colored 
baits — white and red plugs or weighted flys. At noon, 
when the big Bass are loafing lazily along the edge of 
the bank, use perch colored surface bait that wiggle. 
When you cast them let them lie still just for a moment, 
then reel in fast. From about four to eight o'clock in 
the evening, use a plug with a yellow belly and perch 
colored sides, red throat and dark back, which will dart 
and dive. And reel fast". 



"Fishing is quite an art, particularly in using arti- 
ficial baits. You must bear in mind when casting with 
fly or plug the natural action of a struggling bug or insect, 
that has accidentally fallen into the water. This is the 
way to fool the fish. Remember, they are much wiser 
today than they were thirty years ago." 


"In casting for Bass, use a boat. You should have at 

least 150 feet of 18 pound braided silk casting Hue, with a 
good bamboo rod and reel. Cast wooden plugs, weighted 
fly or pork- ring wriggler up near the bank, starting the 
lure back just about the time it hits the water, 'this 
can be done by changing hands with the rod while the 
lure is still in the air." 



"Always cast your bait overhead — never sideways. 
Use a short rod, preferably a good bamboo rod. Practice 
in any level open ground space, or body of water. Move 
your arm and wrist pretty much as though you were 
hurling a ball, and aim at a target in front. Keep your 
thumb on the reel spool, but release it just as the lure is 
about to touch the ground or water." 


"You will have better luck if you let your casting flys 
sink, and then jump them up and down. This can be 
accomplished by manipulating the rod tip." 


"If your line tangles, it is a sign you are using too 
much force in your cast, or not thumbing your reel proper- 
ly. For fly-casting use a nine foot rod, ninety feet of 
enameled line, about eighteen pound test and a regular 
fly-rod reel. Move the rod back and forth over the 
shoulder until enough line is out of reach, say thirty to 
fifty feet, bearing in mind that the back cast approximates 
the same distance as the front cast." 


"Mice, Wiggle- tails and Lizards should be hooked 
through the lips, and minnows through the lip or back, 
and use on or near the surface." 


"Grasshoppers and crickets give best results when 
tied to the hook with a bit of fine thread and then floated 
on the surface." 


"All Bass — big mouth, small mouth, calico, silver, 
red eye, crappie, as well as the bream and so-called 


perch family like goggle eye and warmouth, — are Sun 


"A blue gill is a Sun Fish and is native to our own 
streams. His gills, or jaws are quite blue, thus his name. 
He is likewise sometimes known as 'Blue Joe', and js 
short and chubby in our southern streams." 


"The big mouth bass is the most difficult to handle, 
not only by the angler, but also by the fish culturist, for 
unlike the Trout eggs, the eggs of the Bass cannot be 
taken and transplanted, because they are protected by a 
gelatinous substance that prevents them being stripped 
and transplanted. Fingerlings have to be secured and 
planted, either from the Government or the State's 


"The Horny-head, or Knotty -head, is the male slick- 
head, while the female of this specie is often called the 
creek chub. Either of these, however, may be a young 
male before growing horns, or little knots on the top of 
the head." 


"Eels are of the fish family, and in no sense related 
to reptiles. They are excellent food fish, and the main 
fish diet of Italians." 


"Suckers are plentiful in our streams, the one we 

know being the little fellow with the black back and the 
undershot sucker mouth. His flesh is almosl snow white, 
and though full of bones, is excellent food when prop< rly 



"There are millions of shad in Georgia streams, 
principally in the Satilla, Altamaha and Ogeeehee. They 
come up our coastal streams to spawn in the early spring. 
Only a very few are ever taken with ordinary sucker 


"Yes, there are plenty of alligators in the swamps in 
Southeast Georgia, the greater portion making their 
habitat in the great Okefenokee Swamp." 


"For Stocking ponds in Middle and South Georgia, 
1 would recommend big mouth Bass and Bream. For 
North Georgia, small mouth Bass and other Sun-fish." 



"Fish do not hear. Their keenest sense is of feel, and 
vibration of any sort will scatter them in a jiffy. They 
have a sense of smell and sight, but just how far they can 
see is all problematical. I don't think they see very far. 
Vibrations will disturb them more than anything else. 
They can see in different directions at the same time, due 
to the unusual shape and position of the cornea, or frontal 
part of the eye. Sounds and shadows bother them tre- 
mendously and fishermen will enjoy best luck if they 
remain entirely out of sight." 


"The successful still fisherman keeps himself well 
concealed from the fish, when possible, even though you 
are forced to crawl up to the fish hole on hands and knees. 
And keep quiet! Any unusual movement near the 
water, such as shadows, heavy walking along the bank, or 
jarring or rocking your boat, will frighten your fish." 



"Fish are covered with a gelatinous coating that will 
stick to anything that is dry, hence wet your hands be- 
fore handling them, or it is likely to cause a bacterious 
growth over the dry spot that will destroy the fish." 



"It is difficult to say just what particular North Geor- 
gia stream is best for brook trout fishing. Luck varies, 
you know, and conditions have much to do with success 
in this line. I would say that all the mountain streams 
where the water is swift are good for brook trout fishing. 
And there are hundreds of miles of these streams/' 

The Department of Game and Fish receives inquries 
practically every day in the year as to good fishing places 
within an hour's ride of Atlanta, and Dr. Powell has 
furnished us with the following information on this sub- 
ject : 

"Below I will name a few of the fishing streams within 
a short Auto ride from Atlanta: 

South River lakes, down near Constitution, Georgia, 
for carp, catfish and bream. 

Powder Creek, a good place in Cobb County, near 
Powder Springs. Also near-by is Nosey and Mud Creek, 
all fair bream streams, but not cats. 

Knowles Creek, up near Mableton, off the Bankhead 
Highway, in Douglas County, a very good stream and 
full of some large fish, which can be caught best with 
periwinkles and spring lizards. 

Sweetwater Creek, running through Dekalb and Cobb 

Lee's Mill, near Union City, containing bream, cats 
and other kinds. (A small fee is charged here.) 


Yellow Jacket Creek, up near Tucker, but get off the 

Venable's Lake, near Stone Mountain, they tell me is 
a good place, though I have never tried it out. 

Go out the Roswell Road, and hit Nancy's Creek, just 
before you get to the Aim's House. There is an old 
abandoned grist mill nearby and the stream abounds in 


Black Rock Lake, about fifteen miles from the city is 
probably the best place nearby, though a fee is charged, 
it being privately owned. 

Nisky Lake, near Atlanta, a private place, is good. The 
bass here seem to love Baltimore minnows. A permit 
must be secured to fish in this lake. 

The lakes near Jackson, in Butts county, are good. 

Flint River, down near Nelm's farm, not far from 
Fayetteville, is a good place for scaly fish. There is a 
deep hole on this river known as Ann's hole, which is 

Down near Union City, the Chattahoochee is good. 

Altoona Creek, in Cobb County, contains plenty of 
fish; also Jester's Old Mill, though not so good." 


The following is a list of the most common species of 
fresh water fish found in the rivers, creeks, lakes, ponds 
and other fresh waters of Georgia. In addition to the 
most common popular name by which each specie is 
known, the scientific or Latin name is given, as well as 
other common names by which specie is often spoken of 
by natives. 



(Micropterous Salmoides.) 

Found in practically all of the fresh water streams. Is 
a popular pond fish. Belongs to the sun -fish pond family. 
Referred to in South Georgia as "trout". Female carries 
from two thousand to ten thousand eggs at spawning 
time. Feed on minnows, frogs, crawfish, flies, and other 
insects. Is a great fighter and has excellent food value. 


(Micropterus Dolmieu.) 


Known in South Georgia as Rock Bass and Trout. 
They are found in the clear swift streams of Georgia. 
Feed on minnows, frogs, crawfish, night crawlers, insects 
and flics. Excellent food value. 



(Lepomis Pallidus.) 

Equivalent to blue bream, blue sunfish, blue joe, blue 
perch, and copper nose bream. Found in most of the 
fresh waters of Georgia. Feed on angle worms, field and 
water crickets, grasshoppers, insects and flies. Excellent 
for pan fish. 


(Ambloplites Rupestris.) 


Bass family. Found in all warm clear waters and more 
plentiful in grassy ponds. Feed on minnows, insects and 



(Lepomis Megalotis.) 

Belongs to sun-fish family. They are found in all fresh 
waters of Georgia. Habits and food are almost the same 
as the Bluegill Bream. 


(Hybopsis Kentuckiensis.) 

Found in the eddy places of the streams in middle and 
North Georgia. Feed on insects and small aquatic ani- 
mals and also mud. 


(Sal mo Shasta.) 

-..-_ > 


Found in the cold waters and mountain streams of 
North Georgia. Feed on minnows, grasshoppers, in- 
sects and flies. Very game, and of excellent food value. 


(Salvelenus Fontinalis.) 

Also known as Speckle or Mountain 'Front. Found 
only in the cold water mountain streams of North Geor- 
gia. Noted for his fighting ability. Feed on Angle 
worms, insects, flies and minnows. Excellent food value. 



(Calva Linnaeus.) 

Also spoken of as Grindle and Mud Fish. Feed on 
minnows and angle worms. Found in all the waters of 
the State. 


(Pomaxis Annularis.) 

Commonly known in Middle and South Georgia as 
Spotted Perch or Calico Bass. Found in the fresh waters 
of Georgia. Feed largely on minnows and angle worms. 
Excellent food value. 


(Ameiurus Nebulosus.) 
There are several species of catfish found in all the 
waters of Georgia. The channel and speckled cat are 
most desirable for pan fish. The different species known 
in Georgia are the channel, blue, speckled and the mud 

(Illustrations of species of Georgia fish from cuts through courtesy of KnUi- 
prise Manufacturing Co., Akron, Ohio.) 



In conclusion the Department desires to impress on 
the people of Georgia this fact — 

It is your Department. Know it and use it. 

Your fishing and hunting problems are its problems. 
Its service is to serve you to the best interest of all of you. 
Fundamentally its object is conservation and propaga- 
tion — that is, saving from waste what we have and multi- 
plying it by a careful protection, that there not be an ex- 
haustion of the supply of these things which nature has 
given to all of us. The Department not only invites but 
asks for frank correspondence on any subject touching 
the field of out-door nature sports, in which you are 
interested or desire aid. Its efforts in the premises, 
whatever they may be, will be equally frank with you. 

As a thought for visitors from other states contemplat- 
ing participation in some of these out-door pleasures 
which Georgia so abundantly affords, the Department 
suggests they accept the same spirit of cordial co-operation 
toward them in the matter of information and assistance. 
In return the Department asks only that we all be real 
sportsmen and seek to spread that spirit of cordial co- 
operation and conservation throughout the State. 


The Georgia Department of Game and Fish 
does not cost the taxpayers of the State a penny. 
In all the work the Department does the entire 
expense is borne from funds derived exclusively 
from the sale of hunting licenses. Not one dollar 
is appropriated to it from the State Treasury 

1x3-0 d 
.SI /